Definition and Development of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Composition of
culture – culture Trait, culture complex, Culture pattern, culture area,Types of culture
change : Innovation, Invention, Diffusion, Acculturation, Assimilation. Theories of
Religion – (Animism, Animation, Totemism,) Interrelationship between magic, Religion
and Science. Types of Magic – Homeopathic and Contagious.Nature of Primitive
Economy- Concept of production, distribution and consumption.Family – Definition, Types
and features of family.Marriage– Definition, Meaning and forms of marriage rulesEndogamy Exogamy, Hypogamy and Hypergamy.Kinship – Meaning and definition,
Kinship terminology (Classificatory and descriptive).Kinship usuages – Tecknonymy,
Avoidance, Joking, Avanculate and Amitate.
Unit – 2
Methodological Approaches in Anthropology : Holistic, Emic and Etic, Synchronic
Fieldwork and fieldwork tradition in Anthropology:-
Types of Research Design – Descriptive, Experimental and Historical.
Techniques of data Collection – Observation, Interview, Schedule, Questionnaire,
Classical evolutionism – British School. (Tylor, Frazer, Mclenan, Henarymaine),
American School (Morgan), Austro German School (Bachofen and Bastian)
Diffusionism – British School of Diffusion and American School of Diffusion and AustroGerman School of Diffusion,
Structure Functionalism- (Radcliffe Brown)
Concept of Personality and Culture : Types of Personalities- Formation and determinants.
Indian civilization-Concept of little tradition and great tradition, Unity and Diversity,
Universalisation and Parochialisation.
Problems in Tribal society-(Land alienation, Health, Nutrition, Sanitation Indebtedness,
Alcoholism, Bonded Iabour, Child labour, Education, Poverty, Gender and Shifting
Unit – III
Definition and Scope of Biological / Physical Anthropology.Theories ofOrganicEvolution:
(Lamarckism, Darwinism and Synthetic Theory). Man’s place in Animal Kingdomwith
special referencetoPrimateOrder.Characteristic features of living Primates, Changes in
Human Skeleton due to Bipedalism and Erect posture.Stages of humanevolution:
(Australopithecine stage, Homoerectusstage, Neanderthal stage (Conservative and
Progressive), Homo-sapien-sapiens stage: (Cro-Magnon, Grimaldi&Chancelade).
Unit – IV
Biological concept of Race:-RacialCriteria,Classification of Major Races of World
Population,Racial Classification of Indian population. Scope of Human Genetics,Cell
structure and Cell division – (Mitosis and Meiosis). Mendel’s Law and itsapplication to
human population, Inheritance of genetic traits in Man: (Autosomal, Sex-linked traits and
sex limited traits, ABO Blood group, Rh factor). Structure & function of DNA and
RNA.Factorsaffecting genetic structure of human population: (mutation, natural
selection, genetic driftand gene flow).
Unit – V
Definition & Scope of Prehistoric Archaeology, Geological Framework:Pleistocene Epoch,
Glacial and Interglacial Period in Europeand India, Causes and Consequences of
Glaciations. Methods of Dating – Relative Dating: (Stratigraphy, Pollen Analysis,
Paleontology) and Absolute Dating – (Radiocarbon Dating, Potassium – Argon Dating,
ThermoluminescenceDating).Different techniques of tool making in Palaeolithic,
Mesolithic and Neolithic period.Tool types of Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and
Chalcolithic Cultures.Salient Features of Indus Valley Civilization- (Town Planning,
Agriculture, Art and Craft, Trade and Burial).Causes of decline of Indus Valley
Algae-General characteristics, Classification, Organization of thallus, cell structure,
Pigmentation, Reproduction, Economic Importance. Structure, Reproduction and life cycle of
Chlamydomonas, Oedogonium, Choleochatae, Fucus, Batrachospermum, Polysiphonia.
Fungi-General characteristics, cellstructure, Classification, Economic Importance, Structure,
Reproduction and life cycle of Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Yeast, Puccinia,
Heterothallism, Degeneration of sex in fungi.
Plant Pathology-Concept of pathogen, Mode of infection, Disease cycle, Host–parasite
interaction, Causal organism, Symptoms and Control measures of Late blight of potato,Smut of
Sugarcane, Rust of wheat, Citrus canker, Mosaic disease of Tobacco.
Viruses-General characteristics, Size and shape, Structure,Replication in TMV and
Bacteriophages(Lytic and Lysogenic cycle).
Bacteria-Archaea- General features, Cellstructure, Eubacteria-Structure, Nutrition and
Reproduction ( Vegetative, Asexual and Sexual ), Economic importance. Cyanobacteria-General
characteristics,Cell structure, Life history of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Spirullina.
Bryophyta- General characteristics, Classification, Reproduction and Alterations of generations,
Economic importance. Morpholgy, anatomy and Reproduction of Riccia, Marchantia,
Pteridophyta-General characteristics, Classification, Reproduction and Alterations of
generations.Morphology ,anatomy and reproduction of Psilotum, Lycopodium, Sellaginella,
Equisetum, Isoetesand Marsilea, Stellar evolution, Heterospory and seed habit
Gymnosperm-General characteristics, morphology, anatomy and reproduction of Cycas, Pinus,
Gnetum. Fossil and fossilization Process. Fossils :-Cycadeoidea and Lyginopteris.
Morphology and Taxonomy of Angiosperms: Root, stem and their modifications. Types of
leaves; Venation, Phyllotaxy and modification. Inflorescence, structure of flower, Placentation,
Types of fruits, Floral diagram, Floral formula.Important features of the families, Cruciferae,
Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiceae and Poaceae. Classifications: Bentham and Hooker,
Hutchinson, Modern trends in botany (ICBN, Typification, Author Citation, Valid Publication).
Anatomy: Tissue and tissue systems, Organisation of apical meristem in root and shoot,
Anatomy of typical Dicot and Monocot roots, stems and leaves. Origin of lateral root, Secondary
growth, heartwood, sapwood and annual ring.Anomalous secondary growth of stem and
root(Bignonia, Boerrhavia, Mirabilis, Nyctanthes and Dracena).
Embryology of Angiosperms:
Microsporogenesis, Male gametophyte, Megasporogenesis, Female gametophyte,Pollination,
Pollen- Pistil interaction, Fertilization(Double fertilization and Triple fusion) Sexual
incompatibility, Development of Embryo ( Monocot and Dicot ),Apomixis, Polyembryony,
Parthenogenesis. Development of Endosperm.Seed development, Types of seeds, Mechanism of
Plant Physiology: Water relations(Adsorption, Imbibition, Osmosis, Water Potential and its
components),Absorption of water, ascent of sap,transpiration(mechanism of stomatal movement,
factors affecting transpiration, significance), Importance and deficiency of macro and micro
nutrients, Translocation of organic solutes,Phloem loading and unloading.
Biochemistry: Photosynthesis, Pigments, Reaction center (PSI & PSII, LHC I & LHC II) Light
reaction, Cyclic and Non – Cyclic Photophosphorylation, Dark reaction, Factors affecting
Respiration: Types, (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Fermentation). Biochemistry of Glycolysis, Krebs
cycle, ETC and Oxidative phosphorylation, Photorespiration, Synthesis of ATP.
Enzymes: Classification, Structure and Properties. Concept of Active site (Domain& Motif),
Mechanism of enzyme action, Michalis Menten constant, Enzyme inhibition.
Nitrogen metabolism: Essentiality of Nitrogen to Plants, Mechanism of Biological Nitrogen
fixation, (Symbiotic & Asymbiotic), Nif gene, Assimilation of Nitrate & ammonia.
Plant growth &growth hormones: Concept of growth and development, Measurement of
growth, growth curve. Photoperiodism, Vernalisation, Senescence, Physiological effects of
Auxin, Gibberlin, Cytokinin, Absiscic acid, Ethylene. Plant movement, cause and breaking of
Ecology: Ecological factors,Morphological, physiological &anatomical adaptations,
Hydrophytes, Halophytes, Xerophytes, Epiphytes
Plant succession: Concept and principle of succession, Hydrosere, Xerosere, EcosystemStructure and function, Food chain and food web, Ecological pyramid,Energy flow in ecosystem,
Biogeochemical cycles ( Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous ). Plant community &its characters.
Environmental pollution: Causes,effects & control measures of Soil, Water,Air &Noise
Cell biology: Cell theory, Structure and Function of Cell wall, Plasma membrane, Protoplasm,
Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgibodies, Glyoxisome, Peroxysome,
Ribosome, Lysosome, Dictyosome, Sphaerosome, Vacuole, Cytoskeleton, Nucleus,
Chromosome. Cell cycle & its regulation. Mitosis, Meiosis (Stages & significance).
Molecular Biology: DNA as the genetic material, Structure and types of DNA. Replication of
DNA, types of RNA, Transcription , Post-transcriptional modification, Genetic code,
Translation, Post-translational modification, Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes &
eukaryotes,Gene silencing , Transposons, DNA , RNA& Protein hybridization (Northern,
Southern & Western blotting).
Genetics: Mendel’s laws of inheritance, Gene interaction(Non – Mendelian ratio) Linkage &
Crossing over, Sex determination in plants, Chromosomal aberration, Extra nuclear inheritance,
Mutation Mutagenic agents, Polyploidy. Plant breeding and crop improvement.
Evolution: Evidences, Theory and mechanism.
Plant biotechnology:Plant tissue culture & techniques. Clonal Propagation, Somaclonal
variation, Protoplast isolation & somatic hybridization.Pollen & Ovary culture for generation of
haploid plants. R-DNA Technology,DNA Transfer(Direct & Vector mediated)
Transgenic plants: Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer, Importance & application of
Transgenic plants in Agriculture.
Economic botany: Crop domestication, Importance of germplasmdiversity, Origin, morphology,
cultivation, processing &economic uses of Rice, Jute, Mung, bean, Potato, Groundnut, Black
pepper, Tea, Rubber.Medicinal use of Cinchona, Rawolffia, Vinca, Aegle and Emblica.
SECTION-A : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Brief resume of concepts of law of thermodynamics – free energy, chemical potential and
entropies – Partial molar properties – partial molar free energy – partial molar volume and
partial molar heat content and their significances – concept of fugacity and determination of
fugacity – activity – activity coefficient – Third law of thermodynamics. Determination of
absolute entropy of solids, liquids and gases. Residual entropy, Thermodynamics of mixing
of gases ( Smix, Gmix, Hmix).
Empirical rate laws – Theories of reaction rates – Determination of reaction mechanism –
Reaction in solutions – catalysed reaction kinetics – Techniques for fast reactions viz. flow
method, relaxation method, flash photolysis, NMR method.
Electrochemistry of solutions Ionic Strength – Debye – Huckel – Onsager treatment and its
extension, Ion association – Thermodynamics of electrified interfaces – Lipmann equation –
Butler Volmer equation – theory of double layer at interfaces and semiconductor – corrosion
and prevention methods. Appication of EMF – Determination of solubility, degree of
dissociation, hydrolysis constant and pH.
Postulates – Particle in box, rigid rotator – harmonic oscillator – variation principles, first
order perturbation principle – angular momentum.
Molecular orbital theory
Huckel theor of conjugated systems – Electrodensity, delocalization energy, bond order and
charge density calculations – application to ethylene – butadiene – cyclopropylene radical,
cyclobutadieneElectronic structure of atoms
Electronic configuration, L-S coupling – term symbol d2– d
10 & ground state of module–spin orbit coupling – Zeeman splitting.
SECTION – B : INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Periodic properties and chemical bonding
Chemical periodicity, VSEPR theory for different types of molecules, dп-pп bond, Bent rule
of Some simple reactions of covalently bonded molecules.
Acid-base concept and Non-aqueous solvents
Hard-soft acid base concept – acid base strength – theoretical basis of hardness and
softness. Non aqueous solvents: types and characteristics – reactions in non-aqueous
solvents. Super acids and Hammet acidity function.
Chemistry of transition and inner transition elements:
General characteristics of 1st row transition elements and inner transition elements
with special reference to electronic structure, ionic radii, oxidation states, complex
formation, magnetic behaviour and spectral properties.
Coordination compounds and Metal – Ligand Bonding
Nomenclature and isomerism of coordination compounds– Crystal field theory and its
applications to octahedral,tetrahedral and square planer complexes – Limitations of crystal
field theory –Molecular orbital theory: sigma bonding and energy level diagram in
octahedral,tetrahedral and square planar complexes.
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes
Types of electronic transitions, selection rule – Spectrochemical, series –
Spectroscopic ground states, correlation – Orgel diagrams for transition metals complexes
(d¹ to d9 states), Nephelauxetic series calculations of 10 Dq, B and β – parameters, charge
transfer spectra MLCT, LMCT.
Unit – III
Reaction mechanism of transition metal complexes
Energy profile of a reaction – Thermodynamic and kinetic stability of metal complexes –
Kinetic application of valence bond and crystal field theories. Substitution reactions of
octahedral complexes: Dissociative (D),Associative (A) and interchange mechanism acid
hydrolysis Anation base hydrolysis: conjugate base mechanism and the direct/indirect
evidences – Substitution reactions in square planar complexes: the trans effect and its
application to synthesis of complexes – theories of trans effect – mechanism and factors
affecting the substitution reactions. Redox reactions: Outersphere reactions and inner
Nuclear chemistry; Mass defect 7 Binding energy
Radioactive disintegrations, radio isotopes and their applications, nuclear reactions,
fission and fusion, radio analytical techniques and activation analysis.
Metal л complexes
Alkyls and aryls of transition metals, compounds having metal carbon multiple bond,
transition metal π – complexes. Metal carbonyls: Preparation, properties and structure. 18
electron rule and its basis. Homogeneous catalysis, Reactions of organometallic compounds.
SECTION-C : ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Stereochemistry, structure and reactivity
Conformational analysis of cycloalkanes, decalins, effect of conformation on reactivity,
conformation of sugars, steric strain due to unavoidable crowding. Elements of symmetry,
chirality, molecules with more than one chiral center, threo and erythro isomers, methods of
resolution, enantiotopic and diasterotopic atoms, groups and faces, sterospecific and
steroselective synthesis – Asymmetric synthesis – Optical activity in the absence of chiral
carbon (biphenyls, allenes and spiranes), chirality due to helical shape. Types of
mechanisms, types of reactions, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements, kinetic and
thermodynamic control, Hammond’s postulate, Curtin-Hammett principle. Potential energy
diagrams, transition states and intermediates, methods of determining reaction mechanisms,
Aliphatic nucleophilic substitution
The SN2, SN1, mixed SN1 and SN2 and SET mechanisms. The neighbouring group
mechanism, neighbouring group participation by sigma and pi – bonds, anchimeric
assistance. Classical and non-classical carbocations, phenonium ions, norborny1 system,
common carbocations rearrangements.
The SN1 mechanism.
Nucleophilic substitution at an allylic, aliphatic trigonal and a vinylic carbon. Reactivity
effects of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium,
phase transfer catalysis and ultrasound, ambident nucleophile, leaving group and reaction
medium, phase transfer catalysis and ultrasound, ambident nucleophile, regioselectivity.
Aliphatic electrophilic substitution
Bimolecular mechanisms – SE2 and SEi. The SE1 mechanism, electrophilic substitution
accompanied by double bond shifts. Effect of substrates, leaving ground and the solvent
polarity on the reactivity.
Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution
The arenium ion mechanism, orientation and reactivity, energy profile diagrams, the
ortho/para ratio, ipso attack, orientation in other ring systems – Quantitative treatment of
reactivity in substrates and electrophiles – Diazonium coupling – Vilsmeir reaction,
Gattermann – Koch reaction.
Aromatic Nucleophilic Sustitution
The SNAr, SN1, benzyne and SRN1 mechanisms. Reactivity – effect of substrate structure,
leaving group and attacking nuleophile. The von Richter, Sommelet – Hauser, and Smiles
Free Radical Reactions
Types of free radical reactions, free radical substitution mechanism, mechanism at an
aromatic substrate, neighbouring group assistance – Reactivity for aliphatic and aromatic
sustrates at a bridgehead. Reactivity in the attacking radicals – The effect of solvents on
ractivity. Allylic halogenation (NBS), oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, autooxidation, coupling of alkynes and arylation of aromatic compounds by diazonium salts.
Addition to Carbon – Carbon Multiple Bonds
Mechanism and stereochemical aspects of addition reactions involving electrophies,
nucleophiles and free radicals, regio – and chemoselectivity, orientation and reactivity.
Hydrogenation of double and triple bonds, hydrogenation of aromatic rings. Hydroboration,
Addition to Carbon – Hetero Multiple Bonds.
Mechanism of metal hydride reduction of saturated and unsaturated carbony1 compounds,
acids, esters and nitriles. Addition of Grignard reagents,organozinc and organolithium
reagents to carbony1 and unsaturated carbony1 compounds. Witting reaction – Mechanism
of condensation reactions involving enolates – Aldol, Knoevenagel, Claisen, Mannich,
SECTION-D: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Introduction to analytical chemistry and data processing
Role of analytical chemistry, classification of analytical methods, types of instrumental
analysis – Errors of analysis, classification, source and minimization of errors, absolute and
relative errors, accuracy and precision, significant figures, mean value and deviation,
average and standard deviation, median value, range, confidence intervals.
Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy
Various electronic transitions, Beer-Lambert’s Law, effect of solvent on electronic
transitions, ultraviolet bands for carbony1 compounds, unsaturated carbony1 compounds,
dienes, conjugated polyenes. Fieser – Woodward rules for conjugated dienes and carbony1
compounds, ultraviolet spectra of aromatic compounds.
Principles – Vibrational frequencies of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds,
alcohols, ethers, phenols, ary1 amines. Detailed study of vibrational frequencies of carbony1
compounds (Ketones, aldehydes), esters, amides, acids, anhydrides, lactones, lactams and
conjugated carbony1 compounds. H-bonding and solvent effect on vibrational frequencies.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Principles, chemical shift, spin-spin interaction, shielding mechanism, chemical shift, factors
affecting chemical shift . Stereochemistry, hindered rotation, Karplus curve-variation of
coupling constant with dihedral angle. Simplification of complex spectra, nuclear magnetic
double resonance, chemical shift reagents, solvent effects.
Principles, Ion production – EI, CI, FD and FAB – factors affecting fragmentation, ion
analysis and abundance – Mass spectral fragmentation of organic compounds, common
functional groups – Molecular ion peak – Metastable peak, Mc Lafferty rearrangement.
Nitrogen rule – High resolution mass spectrometry – Examples of mass spectral
fragmentation of simple organic compounds with respect to their structure determination.
Problems relating to elucidation of structure of simple organic molecules using UVVIS,
IR, NMR and Mass spectral data.
SECTION-E: GENERAL CHEMISTRY
Adsorption: Freundlich adsorption isotherm, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, Gibb’s
adsorption isotherm, BET equation, surface tension, capillary action – pressure difference
across curved surface, surface films on liquids.
Micelles : Surface active agents and their classifications – Structure of micelles – CMC –
hermodynamics of micellizations – Solubilization –micro emulsion – reverse micelle.
Polymers : Definition, type of polymers – kinetie of polymerization – mechanism of
polymerization – Molecular mass and its determination (Osmometry, Viscometry, diffusion
and light scattering methods).
Essential and trace metals in biological processes – role of alkali and alkaline earth metal
ions, – Na+- K+ Pump, metalloporphyrins with special reference to hemoglobin and
myoglobin, Metal complexes in transmission of energy – chlorophyll, photosystem-I and
photosystem-II in cleavage of water – ATP as energy currency in biological system.
Metalloenzymes: Carbonic anhydrase, carboxypetidase.
Different laws, quantum yield, fluorescence, phosphorescenc, chemiluminiscence,
photolysis, photo synthesis, photosensitiser, photoinhibitor
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, type of excitations, fate of excited
molecule, transfer of excitation energy, actinometry.
Photochemistry of Alkenes : Intramolecular reactions of the olefinic bond – geometrical
isomerism, cyclisation reactions, rearrangement of 1,4- and 1.5- dienes.
Photochemistry of Carbony1 Compounds : Intramolecular reactions of carbony1
compounds – saturated, cyclic and acyclic, β,γ-unsaturated and α, β- unsaturated
Photochemistry of Aromatic Compounds : Isomerisations, additions and substitutions.
Environmental samples and their analyses
Aquatic pollution: Inorganic, organic, pesticides, agricultural, industrial etc.-Water qualify
parameters: dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, solids, metals, content of
chlorides, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate. Analytical methods for measuring BOD, DO,
COD, fluoride, nitrate (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se etc.)
Unit – IV
Supramolecular Chemistry :
(i) Receptors/Hosts on molecular recognition of different types of guests and biological
(ii)Chemistry of crown ethers, calixarenes and cyclodextrines.
Financial Accounting: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), Preparation of Final Accounts (Soletrading concern and Partnership) with adjustments.
Corporate Accounting: Accounting for issue and redemption of shares and debentures; Preparation of Final
accounts (statement of Profit and Loss, Balance Sheet, and Cash Flow statement); Amalgamation, Absorption
and Reconstruction; Analysis of Financial Statements
Cost and Management Accounting: Ascertainment of Cost; Methods of costing, Job costing, Process costing
(Except Equivalent production), contract costing; cost control techniques, Standard costing and analysis of
variance; Marginal Costing-, Cost-volume-profit analysis, Break-even analysis and decision making; Budgetary
BUSINESS REGULATORY FRAMEWORK:
Law of Contract: Essentials of a valid contract, Void agreements, Discharge of a contract, Contract of Indemnity
and Guarantee, Contract of Bailment.
Sale of Goods Act: Contract of Sale, Conditions and warranties, Transfer of ownership in goods including sale
by a non-owner, Performance of contract of sale, Unpaid seller- meaning, rights of an unpaid seller against the
goods and the buyer.
Partnership Act: Nature and characteristics of Partnership, Registration of partnership, Rights and duties of
partners, Types of partners, Limited liability of partnership (LLP) Act, 2008- Salient features of LLP, difference
between LLP and partnership, LLP and Company, LLP agreement, Incorporation document, Incorporation by
Corporate Law (As per Companies Act 2013): Administration of Company Law, National Company Law Appellate
Tribunal, Types of companies, Formation of company and registration of a company, Documents of a companyMemorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Prospectus, GDR; Transmission of shares, Buy back of
shares; Appointment of Directors, Their powers and duties, Removal of directors; Types of meeting,
Remuneration committee, Audit committee.
Depository Act 1996:- Depository process, De-mat, NSDL, SHCIL, Need for investor’ education.
STATISTICS AND QUANITATIVE TECHNIQUES STATISTICS :- Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of
Dispersion, Skewness, Kurtosis, Correlation and Regression analysis, Theory of probability, Index number.
Quantitative Techniques: Linear Programming- Meaning and types of LP, Linear Programming Problems (LPP);
Network Analysis- Meaning, Network diagram, Techniques of network analysis, CPM, PERT; Inventory Control
techniques- Meaning, Inventory control models: ABC analysis, EOQ,.
TAXATION & AUDITING:
Income Tax:- Concepts of Assessees, Assessment Year, Previous Year, Persons, Total Income and Agricultural
income; Residential status of Assessees; Exempted income; Income from Salary, Income from House Property,
Income from Business and Profession, Income from capital gain and Income from other sources;Computation of
Total Income of individual assessees and Deduction U/S 80 relating to individual assessees.
Goods & Services Tax (GST):- Constitutional framework of indirect tax before GST, Major defects in the
structures of Indirect tax prior to GST, GST Council, GST Network, State compensation mechanism, Registration;
Levy and collection of GST:- Taxable event- Supply of goods and services, Place of supply: within state,
interstate, Import and Export, Time of supply, Valuation for GST, Valuation rules, Taxability of re-imbursement of
expenses, Exemption from GST
Auditing:- Meaning, Objects and Types of Audit; Internal check and Internal control; Vouching of Cash
transactions, Trading transactions and Impersonal ledger; Verification and Valuation of Assets and Liabilities,
Auditor’s duty in respect of divisible profits and dividends.
Principles of Management:- Evolution of management thoughts, Management functions- Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing, Motivation, Leadership, Communication and Controlling.
Human Resources Management:- Concept and Functions, Role, HR policies; Evolution of HRM; Emerging
challenges of HRM; Work-Force Diversity, Empowerment, Downsizing; VRS, HR Information System; Acquisition;
Training & Development and Performance Appraisal.
Marketing Management:- Evolution of Marketing Concept; Marketing mix: Product- Product Classification,
product- mix, Branding, Packaging, Labeling; Product Life Cycle; Pricing- Pricing Policies and Strategies; PlaceChannels Of Distribution, physical Distribution System; Online-Marketing. Promotion: Advertising and Publicity,
Personal Selling, Public Relations, and Sales Promotion.
Financial Management:- Time value of money; Cost of Capital, Capital Structure, and Capital Budgeting.
UNIT-I: MICRO AND MACRO ECONOMICS
Consumer Theory: Indifference curves and their Properties, Optimization and Equilibrium,
Change in equilibrium – Income Offer Curve and Engel Curve, price, income and substitution
effects; Revealed Preference Theory, Consumer’s Surplus and Producer’s Surplus.
Production and Cost Functions: Production with one variable input (labour) and with twovariable inputs; Returns to Scale; Four Simple Production Functions (Linear, Fixed Proportions,
Cobb-Douglas, CES); Isoquants and Producer’s Equilibrium; Costs, Cost Functions and Cost
Curves; Objectives of a Business Firm and Validity of Profit maximization hypothesis.
Markets and Equilibrium :Pure and perfect competition, Supply decision of a competitive firm,
Equilibrium in Short and Long Run; Monopoly and Price Discrimination; Monopolistic
competition and Equilibrium; Oligopoly – Price leadership, Cournot Equilibrium, Kinked demand
Distribution, General Equilibrium and Welfare Economics: Marginal productivity theory,
Theories of Rent, Wages, Interest and Profit; General Equilibrium (2X2X2) model, Efficiency of
General Equilibrium; Marshallian and Pigovian Welfare economics; Pareto optimality;
Compensation Principle; Social welfare function.
Game Theory: The Payoff Matrix of a Game; Nash Equilibrium; Mixed Strategies ;The Prisoner’s
Dilemma; Repeated Games; Enforcing a cartel; Sequential Games; A Game of entry deterrence.
Macroeconomics and National Income Accounting: Macro vs. Micro-Economics; National
Income Concepts; Real and Nominal GDP; Output, Income and Expenditure Approaches to
measuring national income; National Income Identities in a simple 2- sector economy, and with
government and foreign trade sectors; Circular Flows of Income; National Income and Economic
Welfare; Green Accounting.
Money: Demand for and Supply of Money; Measures of Money Supply in India; Quantity Theory
of Money; Value of Money and Index Number of Prices; Inflation, Deflation, Depression and
Stagflation and measures to control them; Inflation, Unemployment and Expectations; Trade
Cycles- Hawtrey’s Monetary Theory, Hayek’s Over-investment Theory and Keynes’ views on
Banking: Functions of commercial banks and Central Bank, Instruments of credit control and
monetary policy, Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries.
Open Economy Macroeconomics: The basic Mundell-Fleming Model.
Determination of National Income: The Classical Approach; The Keynesian Approach;
Consumption Function & Absolute, Relative, Permanent and Life-Cycle Hypotheses; MEC, MEI
and Theories of Investment; Income Determination in a Simple 2-Sector Model; Derivation of
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Curves in the IS-LM Framework and Determination of
Equilibrium; Investment Multiplier; Income Determination in a 3-Sector Model and Fiscal
Multipliers; Relative efficacy of monetary and fiscal policies; Crowding out effect.
UNIT-II: PUBLIC ECONOMICS AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS
Introduction to public finance: Public Finance and private finance; public good vs. private good;
Marit Goods; Market failure and role of government.
Public Expenditure: Classification, cannons, causes of growth of public expenditure-Wagner’s
law and Peacock-Wiseman hypothesis and effects of Public Expenditure; Criteria for public
investment Social Cost-Benefit Analysis; Maximum Social Advantage.
Public Revenue: Sources of Public Revenue; Taxation – cannons and classification, impact and
incidence of taxes; The benefit and ability to pay approaches; Taxable capacity; Effects of taxation;
Characteristics of a good tax system.
Public Budget: Kinds of budget- Economic and Functional classification, Balanced and
unbalanced budgets; Balanced budget multiplier; Budget as an instrument of economic policy;
Concepts of Deficits.
Indian Public Finance : Expenditure-Growth and Composition, Tax Revenue of Central and State
Governments; The GST debate; India’s Fiscal Policy. Criteria of Devolution or Resources by
Finance Commission, Major trends in tax revenue of central and state governments in India.
Public Debt: Sources and effects; Debt burden- inter-generational shifting of burden and
intergenerational equity; Methods of debt redemption; Debt management; Tax vs. debt. Debt
Trade Theories: Absolute advantage; Comparative advantage and opportunity cost; HeckscherOhlin theory of trade.
Trade and Economic Growth: Terms of trade; Reciprocal demand and Offer curve; Gains from
trade; International Trade and Growth; Free trade and policy of tariffs in relation to economic
Exchange Rate: Types of Exchange Rate (bilateral vs. trade-weighted exchange rate, cross
exchange rate, spot, forward, futures); Demand for and Supply of foreign exchange; Exchange Rate
Determination-Purchasing Power Parity Theory, Them Monetary Model of Exchange Rates, Asset
or Portfolio Model of Exchange Rates; Fixed vs. Flexible exchange rate.
Balance of Trade and Payments: Concepts and components of balance of trade and balance of
payments; Equilibrium and disequilibrium in balance of payments and measures to correct deficit in
BoPs; Foreign trade multiplier.
International Economic Institutions: IMF, World Bank, WTO and Asian Development Bank—
their achievements and failures; Forms of economic cooperation; Reforms for the emergence of
international monetary system and trading blocs at the global level.
UNIT-III: DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
Study of economic development: Economic growth and economic development; Characteristics of
underdeveloped countries; Obstacles to economic development; Measures of economic
development – national and per capita income, basic needs approach, capabilities approach, three
core values of development, PQLI, HDI, HPI, MDPI, GDI.
Theories of Economic Growth and Development: Classical, Marxian and Schumpeterian
theories; Rostow’s stages of economic growth; Balanced vs. unbalanced growth; Low level
equilibrium trap and Critical minimum effort theories; Modeling Economic Growth-The Basic
Harrod- Domar Model, Joan Robinson and the Golden Rule of Capital Accumulation, The Basic
Solow Model, The Rudimentary A-K Model of Endogenous Growth.
Poverty, Inequality and Development: Concepts of poverty and inequality; Measuring poverty–
Lorenz curve and Kuznets’ inverted U hypothesis; Growth, poverty and inequality linkage; Poverty
groups- rural poverty, women and poverty, indigenous population and poverty; Dualism, Regional
inequalities and economic development.
Institutions and Economic Development: Role of institutions in economic development; The role
of democracy in economic development; Role of state; Role of markets and market failure;
Limitations of markets in LDCs; Corruption and economic development.
Financing Economic Development: Saving, capital formation and economic development;
Foreign finance, investment and aid – controversies and opportunities; Private foreign investment
and private portfolio investment.
Globalisation, International Trade and Economic Development: Trade and economic
development; Export led growth; Trade liberalisation and growth of exports; Terms of trade and
economic growth – the Prebisch Singer Hypothesis; Trade vs. aid.
Economy and Environment: Environment and Economy interaction; Environment as a public
good- National versus global public goods; Market failure-Environmental degradation and
externalities; The nexus involving environment, development and poverty; Population, resources
and the environment; Poverty, economic growth, rural development, urban development and the
environment; Common property resources as public goods and the free-rider problem.
The Economics of Pollution and Climate change: Pollution as externality; The market
Approach to optimal pollution, Property rights and market bargain theorems, Coase theorem;
Taxation, Subsidies and optimal pollution; Pollution permit trading; Climate change – concept,
causes, effects and management; Climate change and Agriculture.
Valuation of Environmental Damage: Methods and difficulties of environmental valuation,
Direct and Indirect Valuation of Environmental Goods-The hedonic price approach, Contingent
valuation, Travel cost approach; Willingness-to-pays. Willingness-to-accept ; Mechanism for
environmental regulation in India- Environmental policy and legislations.
Natural Resources and Sustainable Development: Environment and sustainable development,
Concept and indicators of sustainable development; Resource scarcity, Renewable and exhaustible
resources; Optimal use of renewable resources – fishery and forest; Tragedy of commons; People’s
Participation in the management of common property resources.
Economics of Social Sector:- Human Capital, Education and Economic Growth, Costs and
benefits of Education, Returns to Education, Demand and Supply of Health and Healthcare,
Economics of Moral Hazards, Health and Development, Health Production Function.
UNIT-IV: INDIAN ECONOMY
Population and Human Development: Demographic issues – Sex and Age Composition of
population; Dynamics of Occupational structure; Population policy; Demographic Dividend;
Urbanisation and Migration; Human Resource Development.
National Income in India: Trends in national and per capita income; Changes in sectoral
composition of national income; Regional disparities in Growth of Income; Savings and Investment
Economic Planning in India: Rationale, Features, Objectives, Strategies, Achievements and
Assessment of Planning in India; From Planning to NITI Aayog– Transforming India’s
Indian Agriculture: Role of agriculture; Green Revolution and Land Reforms; Agricultural
Finance; Agricultural Marketing.
Industrial Development in India: Role of Industrialisation; Trends in industrial output and
productivities; Small Scale & Cottage Industries- Role, Problems and Remedies; Industrial Policies;
Problems of Industrial Development in India; Industrial finance and industrial sickness.
Service Sector in India: Trend of Growth & Contribution to GDP; ICT and IT – Spread and
Policy; Sustainability of services led growth.
External Sector in India: Trends, Composition & Direction in exports from and imports of India;
Present balance of payments position of India – Need for and rationale of trade reforms in India
including partial and full convertibility of rupee; Recent export and import policies in India; Export
Promotion vs. Import Substitution; Foreign Trade Policy of India; FDI flow and regulatory
framework; WTO and India.
Economic and Social Infrastructure of India: Growth of transport sector and development of its
sub-sectors; Indian Telecom Industry- spread and competition; Irrigation; Energy- forms of energy,
conservation and government policy; Education- finance for education, education policy; Healthhealth care structure in India, National Health Policies; Housing- rural and urban housing schemes
in India; Sustainable Development Goals.
Financial Markets in India: Commercial Banking in India& Nationalisation of Banks; RBI –
Functions, Monetary Policy and Techniques of monetary control; Development Banking;
Microfinance institutions in India- Problems and prospects; Policy issues in banking sector- Nonperforming assets; Indian Stock Market and SEBI; Banking and financial sector reforms in India.
Economic Reforms, Globalisation in India: Genesis of Reforms, Macroeconomic Stabilisation,
Structural Reforms, Impact of Economic Reforms on the Indian Economy; IMF, World Bank,
WTO and Asian Development Bank—Their Role from the point of view of India.
Current Challenges: Poverty and Poverty Alleviation Programes; Inequality – Measures and
trends in India; Unemployment and Employment Policy.
Odisha Economy:- Demographic Features, Macro Economic Indicators.
UNIT V: QUANTITATIVE METHODS
Functions and differentiation: Types of functions- constant, polynomial, rational, exponential,
logarithmic; Rate of change and derivative; Rules of differentiation for a function of one variable;
Partial differentiation techniques; Partial derivatives in Economics; Elasticity of a function –
demand and cost elasticity, cross and partial elasticity; Technique of higher order differentiation;
Second order derivative and curvature of a function; Concavity and convexity of functions; Points
of inflection, Derivative of Implicit Function.
Integration: Indefinite Integrals; Rules of Integration; Techniques of Integration: Substitution
Rule, Integration by parts, and Partial Fractions; Definite Integral – Area Interpretation.
Optimisation: Relative maximum and minimum; Necessary versus sufficient conditions – First and
Second derivative tests (Using Hessian Determinants); Economic applications thereof, First and
second order condition for extremum of multivariable functions; Effects of a constraint; Finding
stationary value – Lagrange-Multiplier method: First and second order condition; The Bordered
Measures of Central Tendency and dispersion: Mean, median, mode, geometric mean, harmonic
mean, their relative merits and demerits; Measures of Dispersion: absolute and relative – range,
mean deviation, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, quartile deviation, their merits and
demerits; Measures of skewness and kurtosis.
Correlation and regression: Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient and its properties, Spearman’s
rank correlation coefficient; Two variable linear regression analysis – estimation of regression lines
(Least square method) and regression coefficients – their interpretation and properties, standard
error of estimate.
Probability theory: Basic concepts, addition and multiplication rules, conditional probability.
Sampling: Meaning and types of Sampling; Probability Sampling verses Non-Probability
Sampling; Simple Random Sampling and its selection, Systematic Sampling, Multi-stage Sampling,
Quota Sampling; Error: Sampling and Non-sampling.
Hypothesis Testing:- Steps, Small and large sample Tests.
Estimation : Point and Interval, Criteria of a good estimator, OLS: Assumptions, Methods of
Unit-I : Philosophical Foundation of Education
Relationship between Philosophy and Education with reference to Metaphysics,
Epistemology and Axiology.
Western Schools of Philosophy and their Educational implications: Idealism, Realism,
Pragmatism and Existentialism.
Contributions of Rousseau, Tagore, Gandhi, Sri Aurobinda, John Dewey and
J.Krishnamurthy to educational theory and practice.
Indian schools of philosophy and their educational implications: Sankhya, Vedanta,
Buddhism & Jainaism.
Unit-II: Sociological Foundation of Education
Relationship between Sociology and Education.
Social Change: Concept, Factors, role of education as an instrument of social change
and social control.
Concept of Urbanization, Modernization and Westernization with reference to Indian
Society and their educational implications.
Multilingual and multicultural education.
Education for Sustainable Development.
Global Citizenship Education.
Education of the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged sections of the society
with special reference to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Women and Children
with special needs.
Unit-III: Psychological Foundation of Education
Relationship between Education and Psychology.
Principles of Growth and Development, Process of Growth and Development:
Physical, Social, Emotional and Intellectual.
Education of the Adolescents.
Intelligence, Creativity and Problem Solving: Concept, Theories and Measurement of
Intelligence (Guilford & Gardner) and Creativity.
Individual Difference: Determinants and implications of Individual Differences.
Concept of Motivation and Learning: Learning Theories-Pavlov’s Classical
Conditioning, Skinner’s Operant Conditioning, Insightful Learning, Bloom’s Mastery
Learning, Gagne’s Hierarchy Theory of Learning, Constructivist approach to
Learning- Contributions of Piaget, Vygotsky, Ausubel and Bruner.
Personality: Type and Trait Theory, Psycho-analytical theory, Assessment of
Unit-IV: Assessment, Research and Statistics
Concept of Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment – Scales of Measurement –
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio. Assessment of Iearning, for learning, as
Norm referenced and Criterion referenced Evaluation.
Procedure of Evaluation: Placement, Formative, Diagnostic and Summative.
Concept of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE).
Tools of Assessment: Essay Test, Objective Type Test, Scales, Questionnaires,
Schedules, Observation, Interview, Assignment, Project, Portfolio and Rubrics.
Characteristics of good measuring instruments: Reliability and Validity, Item analysis.
View point of National Curriculum Framework (NCF) -2005 on Examination Reform ;
Focus and Learning outcomes.
Concept of Research, Major approaches to Research; Quantitative, and Qualitative.
Types of research based on method – Descriptive, Ex – post – facto, Experimental
Historical, Case Study, Narrative research.
Analysis of Data: Descriptive (Mean, Median, Mode, Quartile Deviation and Standard
Deviation) and Inferential Statistics: Normal Probability Curve, t-test, Chi-square
test, Correlation: Rank Difference and Product- Moment.
Unit-V: Modern Trends in Education
NEP2020 – Thrust areas and Educational Implications.
Early Childhood Care and Education: Meaning, Nature and Objectives, Importance of
Early Childhood Care and Education, Problem and issues
Elementary Education: Universalization of Elementary Education with reference to
NPE-1986-Problems and Issues. Samagra Siksha, Implementation of Right of
Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.
Secondary Education: Aims of Education, Curriculum and Methods of Teaching with
reference to Secondary Education Commission-1952-53 and Education Commission
1964-1966, Quality improvement in Secondary Education, Problems and issues in
Vocationalization of Secondary Education/ Higher Secondary Education and NEP2020.
Higher Education: Higher Education with reference to NPE-1986 and NEP-2020;
Issues in Higher Education: Access, Quality and Inclusion, Rastriya Uchattar
Shiksha Abhiyan, National Assessment and Accreditation Council ; Quality
Assurance in Higher Education. Implementation of choice- based credit system,
Internationalization of Higher Education.
Teacher Education: Teacher Education with reference to Education Commission
(1964-66), NPE-1986, NCFTE-2009 and NEP-2020. Meaning and Scope of Teacher
Education, Objectives of Teacher Education at Elementary and Secondary Level,
Pre-service and In-service Teacher Education, Quality Improvement of teacher
Education with reference to role of NCTE.
Recent Concerns in Education: Life Skill Education, Environmental Education,
Human Rights Education, ICT in Education, Inclusive Education.
The candidates shall answer 100 Multiple Choice Questions. Each correct answer carries 1.5 mark and 0.5 marks
shall be deducted for each wrong answer.
Unit-1 British literature from Chaucer to the Contemporary period 
Unit – 2 Indian Writing in English 
(i) Poetry, Novel, Drama from 1930s till the Contemporary period
(ii) Indian Classical Literature: ‘The Dicing’ and ‘The Sequel to Dicing,’ in the Mahabharata by Vyasa,
Abhijnanasakuntalam by Kalidasa, Mrcchakatika by Sudraka, Bharata’s Rasa theory
Unit 3 – American Literature From the 1850s to the contemporary period 
Unit – 4-Popular Literatures, Postcolonial Literature, World Literature & Literature of Diaspora 
World Literature : Albert Camus, Fyodor Dostoyvosky, Margaret Atwood, Alice Monroe, Pablo Neruda, Octavio
Paz, Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, Luigi Pirandello, Eugene Ionesco , Jean Genet, Samuel Beckett ,
Postcolonial Literature: V S Naipaul, Chinua Achebe, Nadine Gordimer, J M Coetze, Salman Rushdie
Literature of Diaspora – Kiran Desai, Jhumpa Lahiri, Amitav Ghose, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni.
Popular Literature: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Shobha De, Chetan Bhagat, Amish Tripathi,
Unit–5 Literary Theory and Criticism 
i. Aristotle : Poetics
ii. Wordsworth: “Preface to Lyrical Ballads”
iii. Matthew Arnold – “Study of Poetry”, “Culture & Anarchy”
iv. New Criticism & Formalism – I.A Richards, T.S.Eliot, F.R. Leavis, Cleanth Brooks, William K. Wimsatt Jr. ,
Monroe Beardslay, Victor Sahklovsky, Roman Jacobson.
v. Marxist Criticism – Louis Althusser, Raymond Williams,Stephen Greenblatt, Terry Eagleton,
vi. Structuralism and Post- Structuralism, Ferdinad Saussure, Claude Levi Strauss, Roland Barthes, Jacques
Derrida, Michel Foucault.
vii. Feminism – Virginia Woolf, Simone de Beauvoir, Elaine Showalter, Luce Irigaray, Mary Wollstonecraft.
viii. Post-Colonialism – Edward Said, Homi K. Bhabha, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.
ix. Eco-criticism and Eco-feminism – Rachel Carson, Colleen Mack-Canty.
Unit -6 Grammar in context 
(Subject- verb agreement, Tense and Aspects, Active and Passive voice, Direct and Indirect Speech,
Prepositions, Modals, Phrasal Verbs, Linking Devices, Conditional Sentences)